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Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists

Conduct research dealing with the understanding of human diseases and the improvement of human health. Engage in clinical investigation, research and development, or other related activities. Includes physicians, dentists, public health specialists, pharmacologists, and medical pathologists who primarily conduct research.   (O'Net 19-1042.00)

Reported job titles:   Anatomist, Associate Director, Experimental Medicine, Cancer Researcher, Chemotherapist, Clinical Analyst, Clinical Director, Clinical Laboratory Scientist, Clinical Pharmacologist, Clinical Research Associate, Clinical Research Director, Clinical Research Scientist, Clinical Researcher, Cytologist, Director Multiple Sclerosis Center, Director of Laboratory Operations, Director of Preclinical Research, Director of Research, Director, Clinical Pharmacology, Director, Experimental Medicine, Director, Metabolism, Drug Safety Scientist, Endocrinologist, Gerontologist, Good Laboratory Practice In Vitro Study Director (GLP In Vitro Study Director), Histologist, Histopathologist, Immunochemist, Industrial Pharmacist, Investigator, Laboratory Coordinator, Laboratory Director, Lead Scientist, MD Senior Research Scientist, Medical Health Researcher, Medical Physicist, Medical Research Scientist, Medical Researcher, Medical Scientist, Nanotechnologist, Neurophysiologist, Neuroscientist, Neurosurgery Research Director, Oral and Maxillofacial Pathologist, Parasitologist, Pesticide Use Medical Coordinator, Pharmaceutical Botanist, Pharmacognosist, Pharmacologist, Pharmacometrician, Pharmacovigilance Safety Expert, Post-Doctoral Fellow, Principal Investigator, Protein Purification Scientist, Research Assistant Member, Research Associate, Research Group Director, Research Scientist, Scientific Director, Scientist, Senior Research Scientist, Senior Scientist, Serologist, Toxicologist
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    for Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists
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     Location Pay
    Percentile Wages Average
    10% 25% 50%
    75% 90%
     Burlington-South Burlington, VT Metropolitan NECTA Hourly $ 26.99   $ 31.66   $ 38.96   $ 70.35   $100.00+   $ 55.98  
    Yearly $56,150   $65,840   $81,030   $146,320   $208,000+   $116,430  
    What are Percentile Wages?
    source: Occupational Employment Statistics, Vermont Labor Market Information, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, released April 2018.
    + This wage is equal to or greater than $100.00 per hour or $208,000 per year.

    Employment Trends
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    No trend data for this occupation.

    Industries of Employment
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    No industries of employment data for this occupation.

    for Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists
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  • Plan and direct studies to investigate human or animal disease, preventive methods, and treatments for disease.
  • Conduct research to develop methodologies, instrumentation, and procedures for medical application, analyzing data and presenting findings to the scientific audience and general public.
  • Study animal and human health and physiological processes.
  • Follow strict safety procedures when handling toxic materials to avoid contamination.
  • Write and publish articles in scientific journals.
  • Evaluate effects of drugs, gases, pesticides, parasites, and microorganisms at various levels.
  • Use equipment such as atomic absorption spectrometers, electron microscopes, flow cytometers, and chromatography systems.
  • Prepare and analyze organ, tissue, and cell samples to identify toxicity, bacteria, or microorganisms or to study cell structure.
  • Standardize drug dosages, methods of immunization, and procedures for manufacture of drugs and medicinal compounds.
  • Investigate cause, progress, life cycle, or mode of transmission of diseases or parasites.
    source: Occupational Information Network: Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists  updated July 2012

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  • Administration and Management - Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
  • Biology - Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
  • Chemistry - Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
  • English Language - Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
  • Mathematics - Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
  • Medicine and Dentistry - Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
  • Clerical - Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
  • Communications and Media - Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
  • Computers and Electronics - Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
  • Customer and Personal Service - Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
    source: Occupational Information Network: Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists  updated July 2012

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  • Critical Thinking - Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
  • Science - Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
  • Active Listening - Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
  • Reading Comprehension - Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
  • Writing - Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
  • Complex Problem Solving - Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
  • Speaking - Talking to others to convey information effectively.
  • Active Learning - Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
  • Judgment and Decision Making - Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
  • Monitoring - Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
    source: Occupational Information Network: Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists  updated July 2012

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  • Written Comprehension - The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
  • Inductive Reasoning - The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
  • Oral Comprehension - The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
  • Deductive Reasoning - The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
  • Information Ordering - The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
  • Oral Expression - The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
  • Problem Sensitivity - The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
  • Written Expression - The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
  • Category Flexibility - The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
  • Near Vision - The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
    source: Occupational Information Network: Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists  updated July 2012

    Work Activities
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  • Getting Information - Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
  • Analyzing Data or Information - Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
  • Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events - Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
  • Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge - Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
  • Documenting/Recording Information - Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
  • Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings - Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
  • Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships - Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
  • Processing Information - Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
  • Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates - Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
  • Making Decisions and Solving Problems - Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
    source: Occupational Information Network: Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists  updated July 2012

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  • Investigative - Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
  • Artistic - Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
  • Realistic - Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
    source: Occupational Information Network: Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists  updated June 2008

    Work Styles
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  • Integrity - Job requires being honest and ethical.
  • Initiative - Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
  • Dependability - Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
  • Analytical Thinking - Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
  • Attention to Detail - Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
  • Cooperation - Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
  • Achievement/Effort - Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
  • Leadership - Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
  • Adaptability/Flexibility - Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
  • Persistence - Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
    source: Occupational Information Network: Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists  updated July 2012

    State of Vermont License Information
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    No state licenses listed for this occupation.

    Education and Training Requirements
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  • Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
  • Education: Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
  • Training: Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
  • Experience: Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
    source: Occupational Information Network: Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists  updated July 2012

    offering instructional programs related to Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists
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      Related Instructional Programs
    • Aerospace Physiology and Medicine. (NEW)
    • Anatomy.
    • Biochemistry.
    • Biomedical Sciences, General.
    • Biophysics.
    • Biostatistics.
    • Cardiovascular Science.
    • Cell Physiology.
    • Cell/Cellular Biology and Histology.
    • Endocrinology.
    • Environmental Toxicology.
    • Epidemiology.
    • Exercise Physiology.
    • Gerontology.
    • Human/Medical Genetics.
    • Immunology.
    • Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology.
    • Medical Scientist.
    • Molecular Biology.
    • Molecular Medicine. (NEW)
    • Molecular Pharmacology.
    • Molecular Physiology.
    • Molecular Toxicology.
    • Neuroanatomy.
    • Neurobiology and Anatomy.
    • Neurobiology and Behavior. (NEW)
    • Neurobiology and Neurosciences, Other. (NEW)
    • Neuropharmacology.
    • Oncology and Cancer Biology.
    • Pathology/Experimental Pathology.
    • Pharmaceutical Sciences. (NEW)
    • Pharmacology and Toxicology, Other.
    • Pharmacology and Toxicology.
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    • Reproductive Biology.
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    • Vision Science/Physiological Optics.
     Search for schools offering these programs at
    source: National Center for Education Statistics 2000 Classification of Instructional Programs .

    Other Resources
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  • Labor Exchange Information
  • A source for occupational characteristics, such as age, gender, race, and years of education and an alternative source for occupational wage rates. Limited to people looking for jobs and the jobs advertised through VDOL Vermont Job Link.
  • Look for statewide information over the latest 12 months for Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists.
  • Occupational Outlook Handbook
  • The Occupational Outlook Handbook is a nationally recognized source of career information, designed to provide valuable assistance to individuals making decisions about their future work lives. Revised every two years, the Handbook describes what workers do on the job, working conditions, the training and education needed, earnings, and expected job prospects in a wide range of occupations.
    Go to Occupational Outlook Handbook
    Handbook occupations related to Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists :
  • Medical Scientists
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    source: Occupational Information Network: Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists 

 State of Vermont Department of Labor